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An Introduction to Modafinil
Modafinil is a stimulant drug that was developed by Lafon, a French pharmaceutical company. It is prescribed to treat sleep disorders that interfere with wakefulness during daylight hours. Some of these disorders include narcolepsy, shift work sleep disorder, and sleep apnea. Some also use this drug to treat depression and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
Modafinil changes a substance in the brain that manages sleep activity, and may decrease the severity of the symptoms. Modafinil is a short term solution and not a cure to these sleep conditions as it simply helps to control the symptoms. Narcolepsy is a chronic sleep disorder that can cause sudden drowsiness and a person can fall asleep at odd times during the day. Modafinil is a stimulant that acts on the brain to keep you awake, so it is effective in treating this disorder. Those suffering from narcolepsy may appear paralyzed during sleep, and suffer from hallucinations.
They may also fall asleep frequently throughout the day. Another effective use for Modafinil is to treat those suffering from shift work sleep disorder (SWSD). These individuals have trouble falling asleep or remaining asleep during their planned sleep hours. Their natural patterns of sleep and wakefulness are disrupted, causing insomnia. Symptoms of SWSD include decreased work performance, irritability, inability to concentrate, and gastrointestinal and cardiovascular disorders.
Modafinil is a popular treatment for SWDW, as many people suffer from this disorder. Up to 15 million Americans work shifts, and may experience SWSD. Sleep disorders are most common when working night shifts, and also occur frequently when working rotating shifts. Modafinil is also used to treat sleep apnea, a disorder where the patient is robbed of a peaceful and restful sleep period as they regularly stop breathing during their sleeping hours.
Modafinil helps people to stay awake when they are sleepy during the day. This daytime drowsiness is caused by a lack of restful sleep. Although sleep may occur, you will still wake up feeling tired if you have not gone through all the sleep stages. Stage one sleep occurs when the eyes are closed and the person feels drowsy. Stage two is light sleep where the body prepares for deep sleep. The heart rate decreases and the body temperature falls. Stages three and four are called slow wave or delta sleep and this is when deep sleep occurs. Each of these stages can last from five to fifteen minutes. Stage five is called REM sleep and usually begins within ninety minutes after sleep starts. Sleep deprivation can be caused by stress, changes to the environment, or when sleep times are altered.
Some of the negative effects of excessive sleepiness can be a change in one’s moods, causing a lack of productivity, inability to focus and pay attention, decreased energy levels, higher rate of accidents, lack of motivation, and even depression. Modafinil can offer a short term solution to these changes, and has been used to decrease the need for sleep and helps to fight fatigue. Modafinil is frequently used to treat Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and depression. However, Modafinil should not be used as a replacement for sleep. The patient should consult with their doctor to find long term solutions to sleep deprivation.
Modafinil is a very safe drug with very few side effects. Some of these side effects include headaches, sore throat, nosebleeds, and tiredness, but none are considered severe. Long term users may have to increase their dosage over time to obtain the same results. Because Modafinil is a relatively new drug, its long term effects are still unknown.
Modafinil comes in a tablet form and can be taken with or without food. For those patients with sensitive stomachs, taking this medication with food is recommended. Modafinil should be taken once a day with water, shortly after waking up from sleep. For the maximum effect it should be taken at the same time each day. If working shifts, take Modafinil at least one hour prior to the start of the shift. If taken too close to bedtime, Modafinil may interfere with sleep. Generic forms of this drug are not available, and Modafinil is only available when prescribed by a doctor. The amount of medication taken should be as instructed by the physician.
Modafinil has gained popularity as lifestyle pressures have increased. Many people have a hectic work schedule and don’t have time for a full night’s sleep. They work a full eight hour shift and also take work home with them in the evenings. In the evening, they must stay awake to complete the day’s tasks, and then be able to get up in the morning for another day’s work. Taking Modafinil not only keeps them alert, but they also are more organized and productive.
Family pressures may also create the need to stay awake for longer hours, and Modafinil offers a convenient solution. After only four or five hours of sleep, one can wake and feel well rested. Taking this drug allows people to get up early and be productive.
Many of those who work full time jobs already alter their sleep patterns by getting less sleep during the week and catching up on the weekend. We limit our need for sleep by using stimulants such as caffeine, or illegal substances such as amphetamines or cocaine. Then we also become dependent on drugs to aid in our sleep, such as alcohol or sleeping pills. This pattern creates a downward cycle of abuse, and Modafinil offers a short term solution to this problem.
Those taking Modafinil can stay awake for long hours and not have the nervous side effects caused by other stimulants such as caffeine. Caffeine may cause irritability and a jittery feeling in the hands and legs. It may cause a temporary lift, followed by a crash in energy levels. Modafinil has been shown to give the boost of caffeine, but has few negative side effects. It is safe, effective, and long acting.
Modafinil users have found they can stay awake for up to forty-eight hours straight without having to catch up on the lost sleep. Usually staying awake for long periods would cause you to need up to 16 hours of sleep before resuming a normal schedule. But, after taking Modafinil, only a regular sleep period of eight hours is needed after staying awake for forty-eight hours. Research studies by French scientists in the early 1990’s found this effect when testing cats, and later found the same result in studies on humans.
In 1995, Lagarde, Batejat and others carried out a study on a group of volunteers. They were administered either the drug Modafinil or a placebo, and then deprived of sleep for sixty hours. Afterward, they were asked a number of questions and given tests. Those using Modafinil performed at a satisfactory level, while the performance of those taking the placebo declined. They were unable to sustain their attention levels and felt tired. Modafinil is sometimes called a eugeroic, which means “good arousal” in the Greek language.
It provides a natural stimulant to the brain, without the physical and mental effects of other amphetamines. Modafinil’s effect on the body is subtle. It improves concentration and focus, and helps people stay awake but does not prevent sleep. Humans have always had to structure their lives around their sleeping patterns, but Modafinil has the ability to change this. Imagine a world where we no longer need six to eight hours of sleep each night, and instead can survive or two or three hours. In the next ten to twenty years, most researchers agree this outcome is very possible or even inevitable. Modafinil (also called Alertec and Provigil) has shown some promise in clinical studies at the University of Pennsylvania, as a treatment for cocaine dependence. These results were based on a two month study. By working on the pleasure centers of the brain, Provigil shows promise to break these addictions.
Feedback from those using Modafinil has been very positive. It boosts the patient’s overall mood and energy level and improves memory function. The use of Modafinil would not be detected on a standard drug test, such as those used by employers or in a court-ordered drug test. Although this drug is a stimulant, its chemical make-up is different from other amphetamines that are illegal, such as cocaine and speed that are highly addictive.
Modafinil can be detected when testing specifically for this drug in the body. Some doctors believe it enhances performance in athletes, so this drug has been banned from the Olympics. In 2004, the Olympics began testing for Modafinil use and 5 athletes were disqualified when Modafinil was found in their system. They lost their metals as a result.
Current research to understand specifically how Modafinil works is inconclusive. Modafinil enhances the ability to stay awake for long periods of time but it does not act in the same way as other stimulants. Modafinil suppresses certain brain chemicals and stimulates others, but scientists are still unsure of how this occurs. It alters the amount of chemicals in the brain that control sleep and wakefulness.
The long term negative side effects of Modafinil are still unknown, although it is not addictive because it does not produce the euphoric state that many illegal and addictive drugs do. These illegal stimulants and amphetamines change a neurotransmitter called dopamine in the brain. Dopamine is similar to adrenaline and controls the emotions and the ability to experience pain and pleasure.
By comparison, Modafinil stimulates alertness and does not create a euphoric state of mind. Similar to other stimulants, Modafinil stops nerve cells from absorbing dopamine after it enters the brain. However, it does this without causing euphoric highs that are followed by a crash afterward. Therefore, Modafinil has a low probability of being addictive, and this has also been shown through clinical studies. Some research has shown this effect may be caused by the fact that Modafinil interferes with another neurotransmitter called noradrenaline, which is a substance released naturally by nerve cells. Noradrenaline is responsible for the body’s response to stress. The brain is a complex organism and much more study is required to understand how certain chemicals affect its functions. Modafinil has only been available since 1998, and has proven to be very successful. Its sales volumes have steadily increased, from $25 million in 1999 to $525 million in 2005. There is a huge market available for this drug. Some estimate that as many as seventy five percent of Americans suffer from some kind of sleep disorder. A published study in 1998 from the Henry Ford Health Sciences Research Institute, in Detroit, Michigan, found that alcohol was used as a sleep aid in 13 percent of adults, and 18 percent had used sleeping pills.
Modafinil has been studied as an aid to control obesity. Independent studies have shown Modafinil is able to control food intake without the negative side effects of other stimulants. Because it is taken in low doses, it does not elevate heart rate. However, more studies are required for this use.
Modafinil had been used as a way to treat depression through sleep deprivation. Sleep deprivation is a fast acting treatment, but with a high probability of relapse once the patient re-establishes a normal sleep pattern. Modafinil has shown some success in sleep deprivation as it prevents daytime naps. About 20 to 50 percent of Parkinson’s disease patients may experience excessive daytime sleepiness that Modafinil is effective in treating. Further, drug and alcohol abusers may benefit as Modafinil can target certain impairments in the brain that cause addictive behavior.
Another use for Modafinil is the ability to improve wakefulness in patients who are recovering after anesthesia, although this use has not yet been validated. Officially, Modafinil is a treatment for sleep disorders such as sleep apnea and narcolepsy. However, Modafinil can be effective for people in many occupations that require long periods of sustained alertness, such as surgeons, soldiers, pilots, students, and politicians. The military, including the army and air force, is interested in Modafinil to evaluate its effectiveness in keeping the patient awake for a sustained period of time. The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), based in Arlington, Virginia, is one of the most interested parties in sleep research, and they have set up extensive research funding. Soldiers are often sleep deprived, but must remain alert at all times. Some soldiers in Special Operations are required to stay awake and productive for periods of 72 hours. In order to combat fatigue, the military typically uses caffeine and amphetamines to sustain its troops. Modafinil has been successfully used as a treatment in the military, although it is only effective for 48 hour stretches.
Cephalon, who is the Pennsylvania based manufacturer of Modafinil, is developing other eugeroics and has recently released other drugs such as armodafinil, an experimental drug called CEP-16795, and another drug called CX717. A researcher named Sam Deadwyler, at Wake Forest University in Winston-Salem, North Carolina, tested CX717 on 11 rhesus monkeys. They were kept awake for 36 hours, and during this time they performed a series of tests on short term memory and alertness functions. Those monkeys that took no drugs could function only minimally, but the monkeys who took CX717 performed at a higher level than the monkeys who had a normal sleep. The DARPA will conduct further tests on CX717 over the coming year as a means to keep soldiers alert for long periods of time during combat missions. They are hoping the results will be effective to counteract sleep deprivation.
An Overview of Modafinil
Modafinil, also known as Provigil or Alertec commonly referred to as a stimulant medication but of late it is thought of more as a remedy to encourage alertness. Amphetamines are traditionally the stimulant one thinks of when in need of a medicinal boost in avoiding sleep. The body reacts much more harshly to the effects of stimulants than to a medication such as modafinil.
Modafinil was granted the green light by the FDA as a therapy regimen for disruptive sleep apnea, narcolepsy, or uncontrolled lapse into sleep, and also shift work sleep disorder, which is due to unregulated sleep patterns disrupting sleep rhythms. By raising the discharge of monoamines and rising hypothalamic histamine levels, scientists have begun to think modafinil is a uniquely acceptable alternative to conventional treatment of fatigue related illness given the data regarding c-fos delivery because of modafinil in the system in contrast to amphetamines. At one time modafinil was being touted as a treatment for attention deficit disorder [ADD] in kids but 2006 saw the FDA purposely ban it for use in children for ADD. The manufacturer of modafinil, Cephalon, was stopped when they attempted to market modafinil to children under the operational name of Sparlon. Even now, the labeling on Provigil cautions against the use of modafinil in children.
Modafinil seems to also be an alternate treatment for depression, cocaine habits, Parkinson’s’ disease, schizophrenia, as well as fatigue related to illnesses. Cephalon does not have the required FDA approval to market for those conditions not specifically preapproved for modafinil use.
Adrafinil, the forerunner of modafinil and modafinil were originally developed by the French pharmaceutical company Lafon Laboratories, Lafon was bought out by Cephalon in 2001. Modafinil is the main metabolized element from adrafinil and though both drugs have the same desired result, adrafinil requires a larger dose for an equal effective strength.
In the United States, modafinil has been permitted as a treatment for Sleep apnea and lower breathing levels during sleep, shift work sleep disorder [SWSD], and narcolepsy only. In other countries, modafinil can also be used to treat idiopathic hypersomnia or basically, all other forms of extreme fatigue particularly where a diagnosis cannot be found.
It is not a stretch to believe that modafinil is extensively used in an off label manner by physicians to nullify the need to sleep. Various other non sleep ailments are also utilizing the benefits of modafinil such as attention deficit disorder as well as an additional step in treating depression along with anti depressants particularly in those who find fatigue as a side effect of taking their anti depressants.
There is some back and forth discussion as to the effectiveness of modafinil as an augmenter of a patients thought processes. In healthy non-sleep, deprived individuals there crossed purposes as to modafinil’s ability to increase concentration levels and improve alertness, thus enabling a person to function routinely at a higher intensity. Data does show evidence that some cognitive functions are improved such as number comprehension and management, and memory pattern recall but no specific difference was noted in higher decision making function and concentration or spatial memory. It is therefore thought that modafinil is best suited to be used on lower functioning persons or those who have a lower intelligence quotient where a higher effectual percentile will be more obvious.
Related evidence has shown that among those trying modafinil whose professions were specifically related to numbers and physics, they noted there was a loss of concentration, intuitive analysis, and generally less imaginative thinking with long term use. This was not an irreversible situation by any means but they did not have this type of effect when using caffeine or traditionally utilized amphetamines for the same functions.
Modafinil may be useful as a therapy for the winter blues medically referred to as seasonal affective disorder or winter depression. No proof exists that modafinil acts in any ways as a protector against apoptosis or neuron cell degeneration. It seems modafinil has also found its way into the locker rooms of Sports since there have been news reports of athletes utilizing modafinil as a tool for augmenting their play, a doping agent. No one knows for sure if this is largely problematic practice. However, it has been known for years that many athletes find a way to juice themselves up with anything from numerous cups of coffee to anabolic steroids before a competition. There is no hard data right now to determine if modafinil actually has ANY effect or impact when used in this way. Indeed, there is obvious third party evidence that it clearly does enhance athletic performance. That being the case, modafinil was included on the list of prohibited substances of the World Anti-Doping Agency or [WADA] classified as a stimulant.
Multiple sclerosis neurological fatigue symptoms have been treated using modafinil when patients reported problems with it. They would follow the traditional dosages or have a singular amount of 200 to 400 mg to begin their day if they deemed it to be potentially symptomatic. Cephalon decided to sanction a research study in 2000 to appraise modafinil’s use as a treatment for MS fatigue symptoms. The placebo study commenced with a group of 72 MS patients who had differing degrees of the disease using two particularly unique doses of modafinil along with the phony placebo for a period of nine weeks. A self assessment process was used with standardized scales to determine effectiveness. Those who took the lower dosage of modafinil found they were less fatigued with a definitive difference against the placebo group. Those in the higher dosage group did not report any real statistical difference from the lower dose group.
Since February of 2007, there were a minimum of seven English papers published on human medical trials discussing the taking of modafinil as a therapeutic measure for Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder or ADHD. Overall, the results of these research studies were positive with patients achieving important treatment goals. Data also proved there were actual increases in the conscious thought processes of many participants. Research showed the primary adverse reactions to modafinil were inability to fall asleep and headaches in approximately 20 percent of those tested. What the studies failed to show was the long term effectiveness of modafinil since they were for a short term. What is necessary are continuing research studies over the long haul that include numerous titration techniques to establish chemical effectiveness and reactions of both modafinil and stimulants confronting one another in a lab environment to figure out exactly what function or contribution modafinil actually makes to treatment. It was in 2006 when Cephalon tried to gain approval from the FDA for its Sparlon brand and was refused. They had hoped to market the drug as a treatment for youth aged six to seventeen but were overwhelmingly refused approval due to research data showing adverse skin reactions in a midsized patient test group of 1000 participants, which also reported one very serious illness. Sparlon development was suspended in August of 2006 as a pediatric treatment for ADHD. Modafinil is a potentially viable drug therapy for adult onset ADHD that is being diagnosed more often of late.
Used in a case of severe depression in an elderly cardiac patient with comorbidity complications with a different CNS stimulant, modafinil was switched for this other troublesome drug with effective results. It shows that even with certain restrictions, both bodily and politically, there are benefits to sing modafinil in certain situations where they otherwise would not be considered. In any event, of the medical variety the use of medications should always be discussed with a primary health care advisor to determine the practicality of utilizing certain medications for various reasons. Options should not simply be written off out of hand.
Medical uses of drug Modafinil
Modafinil is a type of oral drug that helps in improving the wakefulness in people suffering from excessive sleepiness. This drug is similar to the drug called ArModafinil. Like amphetamines, this drug promotes the wakefulness by stimulating human brain. The exact process of this drug is still unknown. This may perform by increasing the level of dopamine in the human brain by reducing reuptake of it by the nerves.
Dopamine is a chemical neurotransmitter present in the brain that helps nerves to communicate one another. This drug was approved by food and drug administration in the year 1998. The medicinal uses of this drug is to decrease the extreme sleepiness because of the problem known as narcolepsy and other sleeping disorders such as irregular or difficult breathing while sleeping. Examples of such type of disorders are hypopnea syndrome OSAHS and obstructive sleep apnea.
The Modafinil drug helps patients to stay awake while they work with their work schedules that disturb their normal sleep routine. This drug does not help to make up for their lack of sleep. So, this medication should not be used by people who are not suffering from the sleeping disorder problem to treat their tiredness or lack of sleep.
Doctors are not recommending this medication to be used by children. There are various brands manufacturing this medication. People can find this medication available in various forms such as 100 and 200 milligrams. People can get this medication from the online stores after they get consultation and suggestion from their healthcare service providers.
Individuals who have started using this drug and facing any side effects should inform their doctors before the condition become worse. This will help them to get some suggestions from the doctors regarding the usage of drug and they can avoid serious side effects in their body.
Why the modafinil for sale is restricted in most of the countries?
Modafinil is a medication which is helpful for the treatment against excessive sleepiness along with other different sleeping problems like change work troubles and narcolepsy etc. Now the question how and from whom your modafinil buy. Though in some countriesit is restricted to deal with modafinil, but most of the countries it is legal though submission of the doctor’s prescription is most essential to get this medicine from the pharmaceutical shops.
These offshore pharmacies basically sell some special type of Generic Modafinilinstead with the brand name i.e., Provigil but it may be quite costly. Don’t worry – there are some cheaper alternatives are also available, these are Modalert, Alertec, Modvigil and Modapro. These ordinary formulations provide you 200 mg. of Modafinil in each pill and these are available different places throughout the world by one pound to three pound per tablet.
You never consume this tablet without the prescription of an experienced doctor. As you cannot purchase these tablets from any pharmacy shop without the legal prescription of any doctor, you should consult with your house physician to legally acquire this modafinil. Modafinil for sale is also restricted and if any seller sale this medicine without any legal permission of the respective authority then he or she may be punished even jail for a certain period of time.
As the cost of this medicine is high, you have to make sure that your medical insurance covers the price of this drug. However, users can buy this medicine online and then he or she has to bear a much lower price than that of purchasing from any local shop.
According to the Controlled Substances Act, the modafinil is under Sch. IV compound. This schedule is kept for drugs for the minimum potential of abuse as well as addiction than those drugs which are under Sch. II or III. So, you should search online for the best modafinil purchase and use as per doctor’ prescription.